On November 13, 1931, Wilburt C. Davison, a pediatrician, and first dean of the newly-opened Duke University Medical School, invited to Durham the 53 physicians in NC listed by the American Medical Association as being "interested" in pediatrics and restricting their practices largely to the care of children. Nineteen physicians attended. From this meeting emerged the North Carolina Pediatric Society and a total of 30 physicians were accepted into membership in 1931.
Nationally, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) was founded in 1930 and had a state organization in North Carolina as early as 1935.
Because of the strict membership requirements of the AAP, not all North Carolina Pediatric Society members qualified for the AAP but many of the NCPS leaders belonged to both organizations. As early as 1945, consideration was given to a merger of the organizations. The merger of the North Carolina Pediatric Society with the North Carolina Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics took place in 1967-68.
The North Carolina Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics/North Carolina Pediatric Society, Inc. was chartered as a North Carolina not-for-profit corporation, exempt from income tax under Section 501(c)(6) of the IRS code in 1989.
Officers of NCPeds on the date of incorporation were: E. Stephen Edwards, MD, President; David T. Tayloe, Jr., MD, Vice-President; Olson Huff, MD, Secretary; and, Mike Dennis, MD, Treasurer.
When the North Carolina Pediatric Society was founded in the 1930s, the idea that children have special developmental and health needs was new. Preventive health practices now associated with childcare, such as immunizations and regular health exams, were only just beginning to change the custom of treating children as "miniature" adults.
In the 1960's, NCPeds took stands on PKU screening and measles immunization.
In the 1970's NCPeds took stands on day care, child abuse, ending immunization for smallpox, adoption of handicapped children, and the delicate issue of minor's consent for health care.
In the 1980's,NCPeds made a decision to become more politically active by hiring a lobbyist (Henry Jones, Jr.) to represent the interests of children and pediatricians in the North Carolina General Assembly, and initiated the establishment of the North Carolina Childhood Vaccine-Related Injury Compensation Program (1985-86). The North Carolina program was the first such program in the nation and due to federal legislation in the following year, the only state program of its kind. Significant accomplishments in the 1990's include promoting the initiation of a Universal Childhood Vaccine Distribution Program (1994) and the creation of Health Choice, a State Child Health Insurance Program (1998).
From an organization that met primarily to get pediatric practitioners together for continuing education and fellowship, it has expanded its mission to include the formation of policy to promote the health, safety, and well being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults in North Carolina.
In 1999, NCPeds started a new corporation, the NCPS Foundation. This 501(c)(3) tax exempt corporation is able to receive grants, gifts and contributions to promote the mission of the organization by generating non-dues revenue.
In 2014, NCPeds combined the two entities into one single 501(c)(3) nonprofit with a single board.